Question: Name the software required to make a computer functional. Write down its two primary services.

In the world of computing, software plays a crucial role in making a computer system functional and usable. Without software, a computer would be nothing more than a collection of hardware components. Let’s delve into the essential software required to bring a computer to life and discuss its primary services with examples.

Operating System (OS): The Backbone of Computer Functionality

Primary Service 1: Managing Hardware Resources

The operating system is the fundamental software that manages hardware resources and provides a platform for other software applications to run. It acts as an intermediary between the user and the computer hardware. One of its primary services is resource allocation, where it manages CPU, memory, storage, and input/output devices efficiently.

Example: Windows, macOS, Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Fedora, and Debian.

Primary Service 2: Providing User Interface and System Services

Another crucial service of an operating system is providing a user interface (UI) that allows users to interact with the computer system. This includes graphical interfaces like desktop environments, icons, menus, and windows, as well as command-line interfaces for advanced users. Additionally, the OS offers system services such as file management, networking, security, and device drivers.

Example: Windows provides a graphical user interface with features like taskbar, start menu, and file explorer. Linux distributions offer various desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, and XFCE, along with powerful command-line tools.

Application Software: Enhancing User Experience and Productivity

Primary Service 1: Performing Specific Tasks

Application software refers to programs designed to perform specific tasks or functions for end users. These software applications rely on the operating system’s services and hardware resources to function. They cater to a wide range of needs, including office productivity, multimedia creation, gaming, development, and more.

Example: Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel, PowerPoint) for document processing and presentations; Adobe Photoshop for image editing and graphic design.

Primary Service 2: Customization and Specialized Functionality

Another key service of application software is customization according to user preferences and providing specialized functionality. Users can customize settings, layouts, and features within applications to suit their workflow and requirements. Additionally, certain applications offer advanced tools and capabilities tailored for specific industries or tasks.

Example: Autodesk AutoCAD for architectural design and drafting, which provides specialized tools like layer management, 3D modeling, and annotation features.


The software required to make a computer functional encompasses the operating system and application software. The operating system serves as the backbone, managing hardware resources, providing user interfaces, and offering system services. On the other hand, application software enhances user experience by performing specific tasks, offering customization options, and providing specialized functionality.

Understanding the roles and services of these software components is essential for users to effectively utilize computer systems for various purposes, from everyday tasks to professional endeavors.

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