SQL Keywords

In the realm of relational databases and structured query language (SQL), keywords stand as the building blocks of commands, shaping the syntax and functionality of queries and statements. SQL keywords are reserved terms that convey specific instructions to the database management system (DBMS), orchestrating operations such as data retrieval, modification, and schema manipulation. In this detailed exploration, we will unravel the intricacies of SQL keywords, understanding their categories, usage, and significance in crafting powerful and precise database interactions.

Categories of SQL Keywords

1. Data Query Keywords:

  • SELECT: Initiates a query to retrieve data from one or more tables.
  • FROM: Specifies the table or tables from which to retrieve data in a SELECT statement.
  • WHERE: Filters data based on specified conditions in a SELECT statement.

2. Data Modification Keywords:

  • INSERT: Adds new records into a table.
  • UPDATE: Modifies existing records in a table based on specified conditions.
  • DELETE: Removes records from a table based on specified conditions.

3. Schema Manipulation Keywords:

  • CREATE: Establishes new database objects such as tables, views, or indexes.
  • ALTER: Modifies the structure of existing database objects, like tables or columns.
  • DROP: Deletes specified database objects, such as tables or indexes.

4. Data Control Keywords:

  • GRANT: Provides specific privileges or permissions to database users.
  • REVOKE: Removes specific privileges or permissions from database users.

5. Transaction Control Keywords:

  • COMMIT: Permanently applies changes made during a transaction.
  • ROLLBACK: Reverts changes made during a transaction to its starting point.
  • SAVEPOINT: Sets a point within a transaction to which you can later roll back.

Key SQL Keywords and Their Usage

1. SELECT Statement:

   SELECT column1, column2
   FROM table_name
   WHERE condition;

The SELECT statement retrieves specified columns from a table based on defined conditions in the WHERE clause.

2. INSERT Statement:

   INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2)
   VALUES (value1, value2);

The INSERT statement adds new records to a table, specifying the columns and corresponding values.

3. UPDATE Statement:

   UPDATE table_name
   SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2
   WHERE condition;

The UPDATE statement modifies existing records in a table based on specified conditions.

4. DELETE Statement:

   DELETE FROM table_name
   WHERE condition;

The DELETE statement removes records from a table based on specified conditions.

5. CREATE TABLE Statement:

   CREATE TABLE table_name (
       column1 datatype,
       column2 datatype,

The CREATE TABLE statement establishes a new table, specifying column names and data types.

6. ALTER TABLE Statement:

   ALTER TABLE table_name
   ADD COLUMN new_column datatype;

The ALTER TABLE statement modifies the structure of an existing table, adding new columns, constraints, or other alterations.

7. DROP TABLE Statement:

   DROP TABLE table_name;

The DROP TABLE statement deletes an existing table along with its data and associated objects.

8. GRANT Statement:

   GRANT SELECT, INSERT ON table_name TO user_name;

The GRANT statement provides specific privileges (e.g., SELECT, INSERT) to a specified user on a particular table.

9. REVOKE Statement:

   REVOKE SELECT ON table_name FROM user_name;

The REVOKE statement removes specific privileges granted to a user on a particular table.

10. COMMIT and ROLLBACK Statements:


The COMMIT statement permanently applies changes made during a transaction.


The ROLLBACK statement reverts changes made during a transaction to its starting point.

Best Practices for Using SQL Keywords

  1. Syntax Consistency:
  • Maintain consistent syntax when using SQL keywords to ensure readability and adherence to best practices.
  1. Parameterized Queries:
  • Use parameterized queries to prevent SQL injection and enhance security, especially when dealing with user input.
  1. Transaction Management:
  • Implement effective transaction management using COMMIT, ROLLBACK, and SAVEPOINT statements to maintain data integrity.
  1. Access Control:
  • Exercise caution when using GRANT and REVOKE statements to control access privileges, granting only necessary permissions to users.
  1. Data Modification Caution:
  • When using UPDATE and DELETE statements, be cautious to include a WHERE clause to avoid unintended modifications or deletions.
  1. Error Handling:
  • Implement robust error handling mechanisms to capture and handle potential errors that may arise during SQL operations.


In the symphony of relational databases, SQL keywords take center stage, directing the flow of commands and orchestrating interactions with data. Whether you are querying, modifying, or sculpting the schema of your

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