In addition to possessing the software modules just described, most DBMSs have database utilities that help the DBA manage the database system. Common utilities have the following types of functions:
Loading. A loading utility is used to load existing data files—such as text files or sequential files—into the database. Usually, the current (source) format of the data file and the desired (target) database file structure are specified to the utility, which then automatically reformats the data and stores it in the database. With the proliferation of DBMSs, transferring data from one DBMS to another is becoming common in many organizations. Some vendors offer conversion tools that generate the appropriate loading programs, given the existing source and target database storage descriptions (internal schemas).
Backup. A backup utility creates a backup copy of the database, usually by dumping the entire database onto tape or other mass storage medium. The backup copy can be used to restore the database in case of catastrophic disk failure. Incremental backups are also often used, where only changes since the previous backup are recorded. Incremental backup is more complex, but saves storage space
Database storage reorganization. This utility can be used to reorganize a set of database files into different file organizations and create new access paths to improve performance
Performance monitoring. Such a utility monitors database usage and provides statistics to the DBA. The DBA uses the statistics in making decisions such as whether or not to reorganize files or whether to add or drop indexes to improve performance.
Other utilities may be available for sorting files, handling data compression, monitoring access by users, interfacing with the network, and performing other functions.