The bitwise operators act on the binary representation of their operands. Each operand is first turned into a binary representation of the value, as described in the bitwise negation operator entry in the following list. All the bitwise operators work on numbers as well as strings, but they vary in their treatment of string operands of different lengths. The bitwise operators are:

**Bitwise negation (~)**

The bitwise negation operator changes 1s to 0s and 0s to 1s in the binary representations of the operands. Floating-point values are converted to integers before the operation takes place. If the operand is a string, the resulting value is a string the same length as the original, with each character in the string negated

**Bitwise AND (&)**

The **bitwise AND operator** compares each corresponding bit in the binary representations of the operands. If both bits are 1, the corresponding bit in the result is 1; otherwise, the corresponding bit is 0. For example, 0755 & 0671 is 0651. This is a little easier to understand if we look at the binary representation. Octal 0755 is binary 111101101, and octal 0671 is binary 110111001. We can then easily see which bits are on in both numbers and visually come up with the answer:

```
111101101
& 110111001
---------
110101001
```

The binary number 110101001 is octal 0651.2 You can use the PHP functions bindec(), decbin(), octdec(), and decoct() to convert numbers back and forth when you are trying to understand binary arithmetic.

If both operands are strings, the operator returns a string in which each character is the result of a bitwise AND operation between the two corresponding characters in the operands. The resulting string is the length of the shorter of the two operands; trailing extra characters in the longer string are ignored. For example, “wolf” & “cat” is “cad”.

**Bitwise OR (|)**

The **bitwise OR operator** compares each corresponding bit in the binary representations of the operands. If both bits are 0, the resulting bit is 0; otherwise, the resulting bit is 1. For example, 0755 | 020 is 0775. If both operands are strings, the operator returns a string in which each character is the result of a bitwise OR operation between the two corresponding characters in the operands. The resulting string is the length of the longer of the two operands, and the shorter string is padded at the end with binary 0s. For example, “pussy” | “cat” is “suwsy”.

**Bitwise XOR (^)**

The bitwise XOR operator compares each corresponding bit in the binary representation of the operands. If either of the bits in the pair, but not both, is 1, the resulting bit is 1; otherwise, the resulting bit is 0. For example, 0755 ^ 023 is 776. If both operands are strings, this operator returns a string in which each character is the result of a bitwise XOR operation between the two corresponding characters in the operands. If the two strings are different lengths, the resulting string is the length of the shorter operand, and extra trailing characters in the longer string are ignored. For example, “big drink” ^ “AA” is “#(“.

**Left shift (<<)**

The left-shift operator shifts the bits in the binary representation of the lefthand operand left by the number of places given in the righthand operand. Both operands will be converted to integers if they aren’t already. Shifting a binary number to the left inserts a 0 as the rightmost bit of the number and moves all other bits to the left one place. For example, 3

Note that each place to the left that a number is shifted results in a doubling of the number. The result of left shifting is multiplying the lefthand operand by 2 to the power of the righthand operand.

**Right shift (>>)**

The right-shift operator shifts the bits in the binary representation of the left hand operand right by the number of places given in the righthand operand. Both operands will be converted to integers if they aren’t already. Shifting a binary number to the right inserts a 0 as the leftmost bit of the number and moves all other bits to the right one place. The rightmost bit is discarded. For example, 13 >> 1 (or binary 1101) shifted one bit to the right results in 6 (binary 110).