The MPEG – 1 Video Standard in data compression

The basic structure of the compression algorithm proposed by MPEG is very similar to that of ITU-T H.261. Blocks (8 × 8 in size) of either an original frame or the difference between a frame and the motion-compensated prediction are transformed using the DCT. The blocks are organized in macroblocks, which are defined in the same manner as in the H.261 algorithm, and the motion compensation is performed at the macroblock level. The transform coefficients are quantized and transmitted to the receiver. A buffer is used to smooth delivery of bits from the encoder and also for rate control.

The basic structure of the MPEG-1 compression scheme may be viewed as very similar to that of the ITU-T H.261 video compression scheme; however, there are significant differences in the details of this structure. The H.261 standard has videophone and videoconferencing as the main application areas; the MPEG standard at least initially had applications that require digital storage and retrieval as a major focus. This does not mean that use of either algorithm is precluded in applications outside its focus, but simply that the features of the algorithm may be better understood if we keep in mind the target application areas.

In videoconferencing a call is set up, conducted, and then terminated. This set of events always occurs together and in sequence. When accessing video from a storage medium, we do not always want to access the video sequence starting from the first frame. We want the ability to view the video sequence starting at, or close to, some arbitrary point in the sequence.

A similar situation exists in broadcast situations. Viewers do not necessarily tune into a program at the beginning. They may do so at any random point in time. In H.261 each frame, after the first frame, may contain blocks that are coded using prediction from the previous frame.

Therefore, to decode a particular frame in the sequence, it is possible that we may have to decode the sequence starting at the first frame. One of the major contributions of MPEG-1 was the provision of a random access capability. This capability is provided rather simply by requiring that there be frames periodically that are coded without any reference to past frames. These frames are referred to as I frames.

The different frames are organized together in a group of pictures (GOP). A GOP is the smallest random access unit in the video sequence. The GOP structure is set up as a trade-off between the high compression efficiency of motion-compensated coding and the fast picture acquisition capability of periodic intra-only processing. As might be expected, a GOP has to contain at least one I frame. Furthermore, the first I frame in a GOP is either the first frame of the GOP, or is preceded by B frames that use motion-compensated prediction only from this I frame. A possible GOP is shown in Figure 18.14.

 A possible arrangement for a group of picture
A possible arrangement for a group of picture

The format for MPEG is very flexible. However, the MPEG committee has provided some suggested values for the various parameters. For MPEG-1 these suggested values are called the constrained parameter bitstream (CPB). The horizontal picture size is constrained to be less than or equal to 768 pixels, and the vertical size is constrained to be less than or equal to 576 pixels.

More importantly, the pixel rate is constrained to be less than 396 macroblocks per frame if the frame rate is 25 frames per second or less, and 330 macroblocks per frame if the frame rate is 30 frames per second or less. The definition of a macroblock is the same as in the ITU-T H.261 recommendations.

Therefore, this corresponds to a frame size of 352 × 288 pixels at the 25-frames-per-second rate, or a frame size of 352 × 240 pixels at the 30-frames-per-second rate. Keeping the frame at this size allows the algorithm to achieve bit rates of between 1 and 1.5 Mbits per second. When referring to MPEG-1 parameters, most people are actually referring to the CPB.

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